From Destinypedia, the Destiny wiki
Champions come in three varieties; Barrier, Overload, and Unstoppable. A given enemy race has a Champion for two of the three types, and can be easily identified by red, tendril-like growths and dark coloration. These come in a crown shape for Barrier Champions, double horn shape for Unstoppable Champions, and two circles around the head and torso for Overload Champions.
Each type of Champion has a corresponding type of player weapon or ability that can be used to counter their special attribute. They will stun the Champion temporarily and will notify all nearby players with a sound and a text prompt. Anti-Champion capability can be most easily acquired through the current Seasonal Artifact with unlockable weapon mods and class ability mods equipped on armor. Some Exotic weapons also have Anti-Champion capabilities already attached.
List of Champions
List of appearances